Airlines’ Responsibility on Climate Change

Airlines’ Responsibility on Climate Change

Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. According to the European Commission, airlines contribute to about 3% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions which doesn’t seem like a lot. However, air transport generates 600 million tonnes of CO2 a year and other factors of air travel, such as nitrogen oxides and water vapour in high atmospheric layers are estimated to have an impact even two to five times higher than that of CO2.

 

In October last year, Extinction Rebellion protested at London City Airport to raise awareness of the problem. One of the protesters, former Paralympic cyclist James Brown, glued himself to the top of a British Airways plane. Another protester managed to ground a flight to Dublin as he got up from his seat and started giving a lecture on climate change just as the Aer Lingus plane was on the runway and about to take off. The pilot had to taxi back to the gate where a throng of police escorted the man off the plane and completed a full security check of the aircraft before it could depart.

 

In order to reduce the large amount of emissions in the aviation industry, the International Air Transport Association have a cap on CO2 emissions from this year and aim to have a 50% reduction by 2050. The Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation requires all airlines to report their CO2 emissions annually.

 

Ryanair claims to be Europe’s “greenest” airline, stating that their current CO2 emissions per passenger per kilometre are 23% lower than the average of Europe’s other four major airlines, Lufthansa, IAG, Air France-KLM and EasyJet. When booking flights, customers can also make a donation to Ryanair’s climate charity partners, including First Climate and the Native Woodland Trust. However, the EU’s Transport & Environment group named Ryanair in a list of Europe’s top 10 CO2 emitters, seeing that the airline’s CO2 emissions increased by nearly half from 2013 to 2018. Earlier in February, the UK’s Advertising Standards Agency banned advertisements from Ryanair that depicted it as Europe’s lowest emissions airline and ordered the low-cost carrier to withdraw their misleading claims.

 

In reaction to aviation’s vast impact on climate change, some people have given up flying in order to offset their carbon footprint. In Sweden, the phenomenon is known as “flygskam”, or flight shame. Environmental activist Greta Thunberg refuses to fly, often travelling by rail or boat instead and over the course of last year, she has inspired many others to be more active themselves. As environmental awareness is on the rise, it comes as little surprise that Ryanair is trying to win this new kind of consumers’ favour. And they are not alone: In October last year, IAG, a multinational airline holding company which owns Aer Lingus, shared their plans to have zero net carbon emissions by 2050. In the United States, Delta Air Lines plans to invest $1 billion to lessen its environmental impact and aims to become the first-ever carbon-neutral airline.

 

Although giving up flying altogether is the most effective way to travel environmentally friendly, there are a few things for individuals to consider if air travel is necessary. According to the Guardian, day-time flights have a less negative impact on the climate than night-time flights, which is connected to the contrails caused by planes. Researchers believe that they add to the greenhouse effect by stopping heat escaping from the Earth. During the day-time, those contrails will at least reflect incoming sunlight away from the Earth, whereas in the night, that’s not possible. Another important factor is the amount of luggage brought on a flight. The more it weighs, the more energy will be used. Therefore, individuals can make an impact by simply packing just the most important things.

 

According to an Ipsos MRBI exit poll during the general election, only 6% of people said that climate change was a deciding factor in who they voted for. However, this global crisis  needs to be taken seriously by everyone and must be a priority for the new government, as it will greatly affect our future.

 

 

Photo by Jordan Sanchez on Unsplash

 

 

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Airlines’ Responsibility on Climate Change

Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It generates 600 million tonnes of CO2 a year and other factors are estimated to have an impact even higher than that of CO2. Ryanair claims to be Europe’s “greenest” airline, however, the low-cost carrier was named in a list of Europe’s top 10 CO2 emitters.

The Irish Environment to Have its Day in Court

Friends of the Irish Environment (FIE), an Irish charity committed to tackling climate change, have become significant players in Irish climate litigation. Now, they have been granted special permission to go straight to the Supreme Court, to demand that the government do better to protect our environment.

The Irish Environment to Have its Day in Court

The Irish Environment to Have its Day in Court

As the climate emergency continues to escalate at dizzying speed, it is easy to feel overwhelmed by shocking statistics and doomsday warnings. All over the world, governments are failing to take adequate action to stop the warming of our planet. Climate litigation is the growing global trend of people turning to the courts to force their governments to do better.

 

Friends of the Irish Environment (FIE), an Irish charity committed to tackling climate change, have become significant players in Irish climate litigation. In 2017, they took a landmark case against the state over the proposed construction of a third runway in Dublin airport. Although they lost the case, the judgment recognised the existence of a constitutional right to an environment, and even went so far as to say an environment is “an essential condition for the fulfilment of all human rights”. 

 

Fast forward to today, and FIE are back in court, as the driving force behind Climate Case Ireland. FIE are arguing that the unsatisfactory level of climate action currently being taken by the government is breaching the established constitutional right of Irish citizens to an environment, as well as many other constitutional and fundamental human rights. In an exciting development, they have recently been granted special permission for a “leap-frog” appeal. This means that the case will be permitted to go straight to the Supreme Court, as a matter of exceptional public and legal significance. A definitive Supreme Court judgment in favour of FIE would be hugely significant, and would compel the legislature to take immediate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

 

We are not the only ones waking up to the potential power of climate litigation. A case was recently won by an environmental NGO in the Netherlands, resulting in a court order mandating the Dutch State to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by the end of 2020. In the USA, a group of 21 young people filed a case in 2015 against the US government for knowingly contributing to climate change and violating their constitutional rights to liberty, life, and property. The country, whose withdrawal from the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation was announced by President Trump in 2017, is one of the largest emitters of carbon dioxide in the world. The 21 climate activists are facing huge opposition from the Trump administration and the fossil fuel industry, but are continuing to fight their way through the court system. At a European level, ten families from different countries are bringing the People’s Climate Case before the Court of Justice of the European Union, asserting that the EU are also contributing to climate change and therefore violating fundamental rights to life, health, occupation and property. 

 

According to latest analysis, nearly 30 countries all over the world have engaged with climate litigation. It is one of the newest and most powerful tools available to climate activists in order to demand change from national government. Due to come before the Supreme Court in June, Climate Case Ireland will be the third case of its kind in the world to reach the highest court of national law (other cases being the Dejustica case in Columbia and the Urgenda case in the Netherlands). A judgment in favour of FIE would result in a mandatory plan of action for the government, and would make Ireland a pioneering jurisdiction in vindicating the right to an environment. It is hoped that such a result would send a strong message to government, and inspire other climate litigants globally to bring similar actions. 

 

Find out more about the case, receive updates on progress, and show your support by visiting the official website.

 

 

Photo by Kieran Lynam on Flickr

 

 

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Airlines’ Responsibility on Climate Change

Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It generates 600 million tonnes of CO2 a year and other factors are estimated to have an impact even higher than that of CO2. Ryanair claims to be Europe’s “greenest” airline, however, the low-cost carrier was named in a list of Europe’s top 10 CO2 emitters.

The Irish Environment to Have its Day in Court

Friends of the Irish Environment (FIE), an Irish charity committed to tackling climate change, have become significant players in Irish climate litigation. Now, they have been granted special permission to go straight to the Supreme Court, to demand that the government do better to protect our environment.

Ecosia – the Search Engine that Plants Trees

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Fairtrade Fortnight 2020: The Way to Sustainable Chocoholism

Have you ever wondered what our life would be like without chocolate? For Ireland, such a scenario would mean an especially great deal. After all, Irish people are the third-largest chocolate consumers in the world. But even though chocolate is generally associated with feeling good, there is a side to it that speaks a different truth.

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Ecosia – the Search Engine that Plants Trees

Ecosia – the Search Engine that Plants Trees

Ecosia is a search engine founded by Christian Kroll, which gained popularity because of its promise to put 80% or more of its profits towards nonprofit organisations that focus on reforestation. Promising to maintain full financial transparency, it publishes monthly financial reports to build trust with its users. Each time that a user is directed to the sponsored links of advertisements shown next to the search results, Ecosia receives money and each search on Ecosia raises half a Euro cent on average according to the FAQ on Ecosia’s website. Another interesting statistic is that it takes 0.22 euro and 0.8 seconds to plant a tree! Ecosia originally used Yahoo! for their search results and ad revenue as a part of their revenue-sharing agreement. However, Ecosia has recently switched its search result provider from Yahoo! to Bing and Wikipedia to improve their algorithms which means they are no longer sharing their revenue with Yahoo! Ecosia is currently available on mobile for Android and iOS devices as well as all PCS and Macs which makes it widely accessible.

 

Launched on December 7th, 2009 at UN climate talks in Copenhagen, Ecosia initially supported various tree-planting programs. Until December of 2010, all profits made at Ecosia went towards WWF Germany which protected the Juruena National Park in the Amazon basin. To aid in protecting this area, employees at Ecosia created a collaboration with timber companies and local communities. By 2011, the company had raised €250,000. With these funds, Ecosia then donated to the Plant a Billion Trees program from July 2013 until September 2014. This program was managed by The Nature Conservancy which wanted to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest by planting a million trees by 2015. In 2015, Ecosia had also helped fund the reforestation program in Burkina Faso which was part of the Great Green Wall project supported by the  African Union and the World Bank in efforts to prevent desertification.

 

B-Labs (which is a non-profit organisation) said that as of January 2015, “In donating 80% of its ad revenue, Ecosia has raised over 1.5 million dollars for rainforest protection since its founding in 2009.” By 2015, Ecosia had 2.5 million active users who helped plant more than 2 million trees. Currently, Ecosia donates all its profits towards Reforest Now, which is a German local NGO that not only plants to restore forests but also protect against wildfires. It was reported that the profits made in January were used to plant 26,446 trees. In 2018, Ecosia offered RWE AG, a German energy company, 1 million €  to buy the Hambach Forest to save it from deforestation for lignite mining.

 

Ecosia has also become privacy-friendly, meaning that searches are encrypted and not sold to third-party advertisers. This means that there is no personal information from users stored and they do not use external tracking tools like Google Analytics. 

 

In 2019, Ecosia announced that it will not get involved in “search-choice” which would appear on Android devices led by Google. This means that Google will set a default search engine in all Android phones upon first start-up which takes away the choice from the user as well as making search engines pay to be featured. This means that in 2020, European Android phones will not be able to set Ecosia as their default search engine. Kroll has expressed his disappointment stating “We’re deeply disappointed that Google has decided to exploit its dominant market position in this way. Instead of giving wide and fair access, Google have chosen to give discrimination a different form and make everyone else but themselves pay, which isn’t something we can accept”.

 

In October of 2018, Christian Kroll gave part of his shares to Purpose Foundation.  As a result, Kroll and the co-founder Tim Schumacher have given up their right to sell Ecosia or take profits from the company. Today ecosia is involved with reforestation in 16 countries around the world: Peru, Nicaragua, Colombia, Haiti, Brazil, Morocco, Spain, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Madagascar, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Indonesia.

 

Critics, such as Finely Amelia Smith, believe Ecosia has further to go in its sustainability in comparison to Google. Smith says that the fact that Ecosia uses Bing as its search provider  rather than Google means that resources are wasted with each search, “Microsoft still doesn’t use 100% renewable energy, they’re at 40% and lower in some places around the world. Google, however, is entirely run on renewables.”. On the other hand, Trudie Carter, the Social Media Manager at Ecosia, has argued that their search engine actually does beat Google in its strive to be more environmentally friendly as, “each search with Ecosia actually removes 1 kg of CO2 from the air, which makes Ecosia a carbon-negative search engine… on average, these trees will each remove 50 kg of CO2 during an expected 15 year lifetime.”

 

I have been using Ecosia for a little over six months now and while I have found that the search engine is slightly behind Google in its efficient search results, it is still a good search engine. It delivers the information I need and takes me to the sites I want to visit. Of course, it also comes guilt-free since I feel as though I am helping make a difference without leaving my house. In my opinion, I would recommend Ecosia even just to try it out as your default search engine and see whether you think it’s worth all the hype!

 

 

Photo from Piqsels

 

 

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Airlines’ Responsibility on Climate Change

Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It generates 600 million tonnes of CO2 a year and other factors are estimated to have an impact even higher than that of CO2. Ryanair claims to be Europe’s “greenest” airline, however, the low-cost carrier was named in a list of Europe’s top 10 CO2 emitters.

The Irish Environment to Have its Day in Court

Friends of the Irish Environment (FIE), an Irish charity committed to tackling climate change, have become significant players in Irish climate litigation. Now, they have been granted special permission to go straight to the Supreme Court, to demand that the government do better to protect our environment.

Ecosia – the Search Engine that Plants Trees

Ecosia is a search engine founded by Christian Kroll, which gained popularity because of its promise to put 80% or more of its profits towards nonprofit organisations that focus on reforestation. Promising to maintain full financial transparency, it publishes monthly financial reports to build trust with its users.

A Student’s Call to Action on Climate Change

Climate change and environment issues, in general, are the most talked about topics these days, and for good reason. With all this news of despair and disaster regarding climate change it is easy to think that no matter what we do, nothing is enough. But this isn’t necessarily the case.

Fairtrade Fortnight 2020: The Way to Sustainable Chocoholism

Have you ever wondered what our life would be like without chocolate? For Ireland, such a scenario would mean an especially great deal. After all, Irish people are the third-largest chocolate consumers in the world. But even though chocolate is generally associated with feeling good, there is a side to it that speaks a different truth.

Environmentally Friendly Menstrual Products – An Exciting Step in Period Destigmatisation

As consumers choose to educate themselves and source products that are easy on the environment (and easier on the pocket in the long-term), reusable, eco-friendly and biodegradable sanitary products are on the rise. There is ample opportunity to reduce your period footprint and decrease the environmental impact of a natural bodily cycle.

A Student’s Call to Action on Climate Change

A Student’s Call to Action on Climate Change

Climate change and environment issues, in general, are the most talked about topics these days, and for good reason. It seems it’s every other week that a new environmental disaster is being reported on and at this stage we are becoming desensitised to it. For over a month we were reading gut-wrenching reports about the fires in Australia, before that it was the rainforest and there’s always huge pieces of ice breaking off from the North Pole endangering species every day with the mass melting of the Antarctic Ice sheet. With all this news of despair and disaster regarding climate change it is easy to think that no matter what we do, nothing is enough. That no amount of carbon tax or environmentally friendly products can save our climate now, but this isn’t necessarily the case.

 

 We have made some strides as of late, especially with the global effort we have seen so far, and people seem ready to act fast. The everyday citizen that is, along with many celebrities and public figures. Huge achievements have been made, no doubt. This global effort is clear when we look at the number of trees that can be planted just with a strong driving voice behind the campaign. It is this mass effort that is needed, and the next step truly is to target large companies. It may sound neo-communistic, but hear me out. It is large, economically unfriendly factories that produce nearly three-quarters of global carbon emissions, 71%, according to a new report from climate change non-profit CDP in conjunction with the Climate Accountability Institute. In fact, it is 100 specific companies that produce the largest contributions to global carbon emissions. 

 

The solution is clear. Change has to happen and it has to happen soon. Urgent times call for urgent responses and a whole, people have really made great strides in the right direction to help climate change prevention. However, currently, it’s not enough to save us, but all is not lost. If the power of driven people can plant 1.6 billion trees in a year, a feat which we saw in 2019, then that same power can get 100 companies, and more, to change their ways, or get them shut down. it’s not time to give up the fight. We just need a bigger, worldwide and possibly extreme effort from those earning millions and putting them to good use. Is it time for a revolution? Possibly. Is it possible to prevent climate change? To a certain extent, yes. Can we do it? I think so, we just have to act now. 

 

 

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

 

 

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Fairtrade Fortnight 2020: The Way to Sustainable Chocoholism

Fairtrade Fortnight 2020: The Way to Sustainable Chocoholism

Have you ever wondered what our life would be like without chocolate? It is hard to imagine such a scenario when you consider how many of today’s products either consist of or contain the beloved food. For Ireland, this would mean an especially great deal. After all, according to Fairtrade figures, Irish people are the third-largest chocolate consumers in the World. Only surpassed by Austria and Switzerland, the average person in Ireland ate about 17 pounds of chocolate in 2017.

 

While chocolate is generally associated with feeling good, there is a side to it that speaks a different truth. The difficulties that many cocoa farmers have to face to produce our chocolate have been repeatedly called out over the last few decades. Hazardous working conditions, exploitation and oppression, a lack of health care and even child labour define the daily lives of thousands of workers and their families. Even though many people are aware of the problem, it often seems difficult to actually do something about it as an individual.

 

Fairtrade Fortnight, a campaign organised by the Fairtrade Foundation, aims to raise awareness of the conditions in which many people in developing countries work to produce our food. For two weeks each year, hundreds of individuals, companies, and groups across Ireland come together to tell others about farmers’ and workers’ stories. In doing so, they want to demonstrate the positive impact of Fairtrade and hope to encourage people to buy more goods made to Fairtrade standards. This year’s Fairtrade Fortnight’s focus is on – as you might have guessed – chocolate. Particular attention will be paid to the women farmers who supply companies with cocoa, seeing that women often make only little profit from the food they grow compared to men. 

 

The campaign takes place from February 24th to March 8th and features a large number of guest speakers, such as Arjen Boekhold and Nicola Matthews from the Netherlands. Their chocolate company Tony’s Chocolonely pursues the mission to make chocolate completely slave-free and create fair conditions for all cocoa farmers. At the event’s opening night in Dublin, Boekhold spoke amongst other things about inequality in the chocolate industry, pointing out the power of the few multinational companies. “How can we talk about a fair economy or a free economy where you can negotiate prices? We have, one the one hand, two and a half million farmers and they have to negotiate with only two companies” Boekhold explained. The chocolate bar also has a unique design. Divided into parts of different sizes rather than even squares, the composition is meant to reflect the inequality between those who produce the chocolate and those who eventually profit from it. Boekhold stated his belief in Fairtrade saying, “I think Fairtrade is one of the few initiatives which really try to strengthen the position of farmers and make cooperatives work […] At this moment, around 6 to 7% of all cocoa worldwide is sold under Fairtrade terms. So that is a minority. But you see an impact, you see change.”

 

Allison Roberts, founder of the chocolate company Exploding Tree and one of the three bean-to-bar chocolate producers in Ireland, is a speaker at Fairtrade Fortnight as well. Located in Cork, her company handcrafts chocolate bars with 100% Fairtrade cocoa and coconut sugar bought directly from farming cooperatives like Kuapa Kokoo in Ghana. Running only a small company, Roberts says she feels freer to experiment with her chocolate and likes to create new flavours that don’t necessarily speak to the mainstream: Salt & Seaweed, Goats’ Milk, Dark Orange or 100% Cocoa are just some of them. And did you know that her company produces the only artisan milk chocolate bar made with Irish milk?  

 

It’s encouraging to see that progress has already been made. According to Fairtrade International, cocoa was the fastest-growing Fairtrade product category in 2017 with revenue rising by 57% in volume, and growth still continuing in 2018. But what is it that makes Fairtrade products so special? Why are they different from others and how does the label work?  

 

Fairtrade can be described as a trading partnership with the objective to promote greater justice in international trade. It serves as a certification scheme that ensures socially and economically fair production standards for goods from developing countries, such as chocolate, coffee, tea, cotton, fruits, sugar and also gold. Since these products are high in demand and consumed all around the world, a key mission is to make their production as sustainable as possible. International fair trade networks like Fairtrade International or World Fair Trade Organization have defined standards regarding workers’ rights, fair labour practices and environmental responsibility that organisations are required to follow in order to be labelled ‘Fairtrade’. 

 

First of all, farmers and workers must be paid a minimum price for their products, which guarantees them a stable income. FLOCERT, the audit and certification body for Fairtrade standards, regularly checks that this is implemented. In such a way, workers are given a safety net as they are protected from exploitation and can use income to save money for the future. Fairtrade farmers and workers also receive the Fairtrade Premium, an additional sum of money that goes to a communal fund of their choice. This fund helps workers improve their social, economic or environmental conditions through investment in things like better infrastructure, their children’s education or drinking water supplies. Another important aspect of Fairtrade is sustainable production, which involves farms and plantations avoiding pesticides and fungicides since these often cause great damage to people, wildlife and natural resources. If it’s impossible to circumvent toxicants, their usage has to be reduced to a minimum and resources like soil and water need to be kept clean. Additionally, all employees who might get in contact with the substances are required to wear protective clothing. But that’s not everything that Fairtrade is invested in. Other important issues that are being dealt with include child labour, climate change and gender inequality.

 

All in all, buying Fairtrade chocolate may not be the solution to every problem in the trading industry but it’s a good place to start and it proves that it’s not hard to make a positive impact, even if it’s small. As one of the wealthiest countries in Europe, Ireland has the chance to go ahead and make sure that Fairtrade products will be even more widespread and consumed in the future.

 

 

Photo by Charisse Kenion on Unsplash

 

 

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Environmentally Friendly Menstrual Products – An Exciting Step in Period Destigmatisation

Environmentally Friendly Menstrual Products – An Exciting Step in Period Destigmatisation

As consumers choose to educate themselves and source products that are easy on the environment (and easier on the pocket in the long-term), reusable, eco-friendly and biodegradable sanitary products are on the rise. There is ample opportunity to move with fresh brands towards an organic and green approach, reducing your period footprint and decreasing the environmental impact of a natural bodily cycle. The average store-stocked sanitary pad contains 90% plastic, the equivalent of 4 single-use carrier bags, meaning a pack of 16 actually equates to 64 single-use bags. They are usually made from a combination of plastic, rayon, bleach and other chemicals. Tampons that can’t biodegrade often contain a thin layer of plastic along with a non-recyclable plastic applicator. 

 

According to household brand Lil-Lets’ website, the average woman uses 11 thousand tampons in her lifetime, which equals 5500 plastic bags. 20 billion disposable menstrual products end up in North American landfills alone. Thankfully, there is now an abundance of sustainable and reusable feminine sanitary products widely available in stores or online. Natracare plastic-free, vegan products are stocked in The Health Store nationwide. These innovative products are often identical in purpose and application to the plastic alternatives, so there is something to suit everybody.

 

Menstrual cups come in various shapes and sizes, produced by numerous brands including OrganiCup, DivaCup, Lunette and Mooncup. Unlike tampons, they contain no bleach or harmful substances, as well as being waste-free! Sitting inside the vagina, just below the cervix, menstrual cups can provide up to twelve hours wear, depending on your cycle. They can hold up to five times more than pads and tampons. There are plenty of step-by-step guides online, and similar to tampons they can be used when swimming. Cleaning is easy; a quick rinse with hot soapy water and a cleanser if it comes with the product, boiling it for a more thorough cleanse. On average, they are replaced once a year, but with proper care and cleaning a menstrual cup can last over a decade. 

 

Period underwear is a more expensive option, especially considering the potential need to purchase multiple sets. However, they are comfortable, discreet and long-lasting, with brands such as Thinx and Rael creating new styles to reshape the horrid imagery instantly brought to mind at the thought of period underwear. They can hold up to four tampons worth of menstrual fluid. If the leap is too frightening, cloth pads and pantiliners are a satisfactory alternative. There are endless colours, patterns and sizes available, sourced on Etsy or through brands GladRags, Tree Hugger and LunaPads, to name a few. Worn throughout the day for as long as you feel comfortable, simply hand or machine wash, minus chemical and bleach products. Gentle on the planet, comfortable and noninvasive. Brand Flo has natural bamboo pads, packaged in compostable plant film, while Organyc 100% biodegradable pads are targeted toward sensitive, allergy-prone skin.

 

DAME has created a lifelong 92% plant-based reusable tampon applicator to coincide with their organic tampons, similar to o.b. 100% organic, fragrance-free tampons available on Amazon. Washable sea sponge tampons are as the name suggests, available in various shapes and sizes. The Flex Company created a flexible disc for vaginal insertion, worn for up to twelve hours and holding five tampons worth of fluid. It’s hypoallergenic, BPA and latex-free, creating 60% less waste than tampons. 

 

More brands are emerging, intent on lessening the unnecessary environmental impact of human biology. Many have websites and social media elaborating further on their duty to reducing carbon footprints, guides on their products, customer reviews and tips as well as more information. Some options may appear costly at first glance, but with one box of pads costing around five euro, the savings made both personally and environmentally are priceless. Behind a multitude of brands lies a powerful message. From the movement to eliminate menstrual shame through destigmatization (The Miosta Project another worthy mention) to financial schemes aimed at tackling period poverty and ending FGM, the benefits to this product switchover are immense.

 

 

 

Photo by Josefin on Unsplash

 

 

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