FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM is the perfect example of the inequality many women and girls still have to suffer in today’s world. It stands for Female Genital Mutilation. The procedure entails the cutting and damaging of the female genitals and is also known as female circumcision.  

 

There are four different types of FGM, from Type 1 being the least extreme to Type 4 being the most harmful. Within these types, there are many different variations: 

Type 1 – Partial or total removal of clitoral glans. 

Type 2 – Partial removal or total removal of clitoral glans and labia minora with or without labia majora. 

Type 3 – Narrowing of the vaginal opening with a covering seal. The covering is made by cutting and repositioning the labia minora or the labia majora. 

Type 4 – All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia e.g. piercing, pricking or incising. 

 

FGM is usually carried out between infancy and the age of 15. Many undergo this harmful practice before puberty or before they get married. It has no health benefits at all, is extremely painful and harms the physical and mental health of women and girls who undergo it. It has both short-term and long-term complications e.g. injury or trauma to adjoining areas, difficulties with menstruation and birthing, infection, or even death. There are many different reasons as to why FGM is carried out. In some communities, it’s an initiation into womanhood, whereas in others, the female genitalia is considered dirty and impure so the procedure is performed to “cleanse” the body. Some believe that the man’s sexual pleasure will be enhanced and will also reduce the woman’s sexual appetite at the same time. However, this does far more than just reduce a woman’s sexual pleasure and appetite, as it causes great discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse. 

 

The procedure has been documented in 30 countries, mainly in Africa, the Middle East and Asia and is a well-established tradition in many communities. Girls who don’t undergo the practice are at risk of being ostracized and “dishonouring” their family. 

 

The latent purpose of this immoral practice is to teach women and young girls that they are inferior to men. In this day and age, where women are still fighting to be seen as equals by their male peers, why isn’t an old tradition that is not only dangerous but extremely misogynistic abolished? Why should women have to give up their control over their body, give up their right to make their own decisions to please a man? FGM, even if done without malicious intentions, is a form of torture and a violation of basic human rights. It’s not just a harmful practice, it’s a connotation for inequality and conveys the message that a woman’s purpose is to serve a man’s needs.

 

Although there haven’t been many cases of FGM in Ireland, it is still an issue. Organisations like AkiDwA, a national network of migrant women living in Ireland, are aware of women who have undergone the practice. According to AkiDwA, there is estimated to be 5,790 women and girls who have undergone FGM living in Ireland, as well as 1,632 women and girls at risk of it. In 2012, a Criminal Justice Act was passed that prohibited the practice of FGM in Ireland and also made it illegal to take someone to another country to perform FGM on them. However, it is still being done and many cases are never discovered. Multiple organisations are therefore trying to spread awareness about the practice and hope to combat the obstacle that it represents for many migrant women.

 

AkiDwA have trained “Community Health Ambassadors” that go around the country and bring attention to the procedure, the laws opposing it and the effect it has on women and children physically and psychologically. They have also held events on zero tolerance to FGM day for two consecutive years. In a partnership with ActionAid, they founded the “AFTER” project to raise awareness about how harmful FGM can be to migrant communities. During phase 1 of the “AFTER” project, 36 workshops were operated in Cork and 100 participants were reached. These workshops were held for men, women and girls. ActionAid composed a documentary called “Girls from Earth”.The testimonies of religious leaders, women and African activists against FGM are included in the documentary. Phase 2 of the “AFTER” began in May 2019. They hope to reach 400 people nationwide, facilitate 12 more workshops in direct provision centres and work with major organisations like An Garda Siochana, Tusla, HSE etc. Another goal is to provide members with the skills required to address FGM cases and engage “30 Champions for Change” to advocate for better services for survivors and against FGM.

 

Pembridge Pictures is releasing the film ‘A Girl from Mogadishu’ in April. The movie is based on  Ifrah Ahmed’s story and shows her own experience with FGM and how she got into advocacy. Ifrah Ahmed is also the founder and program director of Ifrah Foundation. Their goal is to eradicate FGM in Somalia, the country with the highest prevalence of FGM in the world, and spread awareness in Ireland. 

 

In my opinion, it’s simply unjust that women or girls have to endure this horrific procedure just to get married and then live with the long-term and short-term agony of it. And let’s not forget the psychological trauma that an event so cruel can do to someone. Whenever I read about the topic I feel upset that there are women and girls who are forced to damage their bodies to please a man and if disobeyed, are being ostracized by their community and family. It’s even more heartbreaking to hear that people are still practising this tradition when they move abroad. Ireland is a country that embraces other cultures and traditions but this is just plain abuse. I believe it’s a system put in place to bring down women, strip their fundamental rights and dignity away and show that men still have power over them.

 

Please sign this petition below to eradicate FGM in Ireland by 2030.

https://actionaid.ie/join-the-fight-against-fgm/

 

 

Photo by Gynelle Leon (This Little Light of Mine, 2015)

 

 

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Uyghurs Interned in Chinese Camps at Higher Risk of Covid-19

The Uyghurs in the northwestern region of China have undergone continuous and increasingly violent repression from the ruling Communist Party. Millions of them are currently imprisoned in “re-education camps” and aren’t given any protection from the novel coronavirus.

7 Things to do While we’re Stuck in Isolation

With a week and a half of quarantine already under our belts, it would be fair to say that most of you reading this have had your lives flipped over in a very short period of time. We have put together a list of things for you to occupy yourself with during this ever so strange time in our lives.

A Student’s Perspective: Sweden is Playing With Fire

I write from Sweden, a country which has chosen not to take strict measures as other European countries to fight COVID-19. I am an Irish masters student at Lund University and find the lack of movement worrying. If the virus is not contained here, we will encounter a health emergency as we have seen in Italy.

FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM is the perfect example of the inequality many women and girls still have to suffer in today’s world. It stands for Female Genital Mutilation. The procedure entails the cutting and damaging of the female genitals and is also known as female circumcision. Although there haven’t been many cases of FGM in Ireland, it is still an issue here.

A Student’s Call to Action on Climate Change

Climate change and environment issues, in general, are the most talked about topics these days, and for good reason. With all this news of despair and disaster regarding climate change it is easy to think that no matter what we do, nothing is enough. But this isn’t necessarily the case.

Xenophobic Ideas Spread Along with the Novel Coronavirus

The novel coronavirus now has 75,000 reported cases and has claimed over 2,000 lives in China. In the midst of this recent outbreak, we might find ourselves more germaphobic than usual. While paying extra attention to hygiene is normal and even healthy, there is an insidious side to this newfound germaphobia.

STAND Student Podcast Episode 6: The Gender Recognition Act review – Why were some people left behind?

STAND Student Podcast Episode 6: The Gender Recognition Act review – Why were some people left behind?

Listen to the podcast on the following platforms:

iTunes

Spotify

Google Podcasts

Anchor

Castbox

Breaker

Overcast

Radio Republic

In November last year the Gender Recognition Act 2015 went through a review which left some groups out – meaning certain groups won’t be able to have their preferred gender recognised by law.

We talked to Ollie Bell from Trans Pride Dublin to learn more about where we’re at in terms of true gender recognition for all, and what we can do to finally get there. 

Follow us on Instagram @stand.ie for updates and links to future podcast episodes.

Weinstein New York Trial Begins

Weinstein New York Trial Begins

“We didn’t have our day but hopefully they will,” actor Rose McGowan told the crowd of Silence Breakers joining her in protest outside the courthouse on Monday 6th January 2020. “And we join hands with them. Their victory will be our victory. Their loss will be our loss.”

 

The New York trial of former movie mogul Harvey Weinstein commenced in the past week and is estimated to last two months. The disgraced director-producer is charged with five sex crime charges. These stem from production assistant Mimi Haleyi’s allegations of forced oral sex in 2006; and by an unnamed woman who accused him of raping her in a hotel room in 2013. Weinstein has pleaded not guilty and denies all allegations of nonconsensual sexual encounters. If convicted of these acts, including predatory sexual assault, he will likely face the rest of his life behind bars.

 

Currently, Weinstein remains on bail, although last Tuesday Judge James Burke threatened to revoke his bail over use of a cell phone in court. Defence lawyers have protested Weinstein is not receiving a fair and impartial hearing and filed a motion for the judge to recuse himself. The lawyers have also suggested “inflammatory” and “prejudicial” comments by Burke regarding imprisonment prematurely dictate that Weinstein is guilty. They have attempted to bar Gloria Allred, a high-profile lawyer representing three of the women expected to testify against Weinstein in the trial, on the basis they might wish to call her as a witness. Burke denied the request to interfere with her role. 

 

On Wednesday, 90 of the 120 potential jurors summoned were dismissed for impartiality, following a questionnaire on previous history with domestic violence and physical or sexual assault. Model Gigi Hadid was also dismissed from duty following the defence’s outrage at the media storm surrounding the high-profile case. Seven men and five women have now been selected.

 

During the trial, several witnesses are expected to take the stand including Charlize Theron and Sopranos star Annabella Sciorra. Sciorra has accused Weinstein of violently raping her in her New York apartment in the early 1990s. Though her testimony has been deemed too old for a separate rape charge, prosecutors hope it will cement that Weinstein had a history of sexual misconduct. 

 

Indeed, since 2017, over 80 women have accused Weinstein of sexual misconduct including Gwyneth Paltrow and Rose McGowan. The 30 plus women who accused Weinstein of sexual harassment in a previous civil case also recently secured a 25 million dollar settlement (covered by Weinstein Company’s insurance); Weinstein is not required to admit his wrongdoing under this settlement. 

 

Hours after his criminal trial started in New York, Los Angeles prosecutors also announced new charges of alleged sexual assault (including forcible rape, forcible oral copulation, sexual battery by restraint and sexual penetration by use of force) against two women in 2013. 

 

Despite Weinstein’s infamy and lack of public support, a conviction for Weinstein is not guaranteed. The second anonymous accuser appears to have had a long relationship with Weinstein which continued after he allegedly raped her in 2013. Her email from February 2017 stated “I love you, always do. But hate feeling like a booty call :)”; the defence will likely focus on this at trial. 

 

Often these types of allegations have no consequences, or they result in a quick flurry of media coverage before vanishing from the public eye almost immediately. However, with over 80 statements made against Weinstein, and due to the high-profile nature of this case, it’s reasonable to believe Weinstein will never work in film again. In this regard, Weinstein has expressed fury and entitlement. He claims he has been a champion of women, giving them opportunities before it was “vogue”, and is enraged that the allegations will leave him “forgotten” in movie history. 

 

Weinstein abused his power to prey on women in the industry and unsurprisingly, ignorance and misogyny are commonplace in the dialogue surrounding the trial. Fox News describes “extreme feminists” ruining civilization, while Weinstein’s current counsel (female) suggests that “women may rue the day that all of this started when no one asks them out on a date”.

 

This criminal trial is arguably the first high-profile case of the #MeToo era – and the results have the potential to set the tone for the future. But, regardless of the results, the impacts of Weinstein’s actions have already had significant consequences, including triggering the MeToo and TimesUp movements. This has paved the way for women across diverse industries to come forward with their own stories of sexual abuse and harrassment and is (despite not-insignificant backlash) shifting the global dialogue and forcing a change in sexual harassment policies and tolerances in workplaces and throughout wider society. 

Harvey Weinstein’s trial continues this week with opening statements commencing on January 22nd

 

 

Photo by Dennis

 

 

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Let’s Talk About Coronavirus And Women

Like most things in life, coronavirus has a gendered impact. Previous experience with viruses like Ebola and Zika has shown how these crises tend to have particularly harmful effects on women and girls and reinforce gender inequality. Now we can see similar patterns emerging regarding the coronavirus – including within Ireland.

New Emojis to Highlight Diversity

Emojis play an important role in digital communication, allowing us to express our emotions and convey meaning through cute little symbols. However, our ability to communicate is limited by the pictures and symbols on offer, and so emojis can make a big difference!

Asylum Seekers host Feminist Conference for International Women’s Day

On the 7th of March 2020, the organisation ‘Abolish Direct Provision’ hosted the first Asylum Seekers Feminist Conference, with the aim of uniting and empowering women in Direct Provision. The event, held in DCU, was attended by asylum seekers from Direct Provision centres all around the country.

FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM is the perfect example of the inequality many women and girls still have to suffer in today’s world. It stands for Female Genital Mutilation. The procedure entails the cutting and damaging of the female genitals and is also known as female circumcision. Although there haven’t been many cases of FGM in Ireland, it is still an issue here.

“Marry-Your-Rapist” Bill to Be Passed in Turkey

In rape cases, there is a victim and there is an aggressor. However, the Turkish government is currently attempting to progress a horrific “Marry-Your Rapist” law that will allow rapists to escape any judicial penalty.

Victim of the Magdalene Laundries Seeks Justice from UN Committee Against Torture

Elizabeth Coppin, a seventy-year-old survivor of the Magdalene laundries, is taking her case to the United Nations in a landmark move. Ms Coppin says that she has been denied justice by the Irish State for over twenty years. This could potentially have resounding implications for the State’s approach to historical abuse.

FGM: A Multifarious Practice Deeply Ingrained in Somalia

FGM: A Multifarious Practice Deeply Ingrained in Somalia

On 20 December 2019 at the Dublin Circuit Criminal Court, a couple was convicted of one count of the female genital mutilation (FGM) of their one-year-old daughter at an address in Dublin in September 2016, as well as one count of child cruelty relating to the same incident. During the hearing carried out in November, the court heard that the woman, from Somalia, had also been victim to the same practice as a child. Ms. Justice Elma Sheahan has postponed sentencing until 27 January 2020 to allow consideration of evidence in the case.

 

FGM generally takes three forms, it involves the excision of the clitoris (Type 1), excision of the clitoris and labia (Type 2) or stitching (infibulation) of the labia and removal of the clitoris (Type 3 also known as “Pharaonic Circumcision”). The health issues caused particularly by Type 3 FGM are profound: frequently carried out by “traditional” practitioners in unhygienic surroundings, it can, according to UNICEF, lead to the “entire gamut of medical complications, including: tetanus infection leading to death; severe bleeding during the procedure and later during deinfibulation; complications during childbirth; inability to urinate; septicemia, sometimes leading to death; severe muscle contractions; and difficulties in breathing”. This is to say nothing of the profoundly damaging mental health implications of mutilating and inflicting agonising pain on girls. Furthermore, within communities with precarious access to healthcare and strained or non-existent public health systems, FGM compounds problems for healthcare professionals struggling to cope with already heavy workloads. It is, therefore, a profound public health problem, as well as a women’s rights issue.

 

The prevalence of FGM within Somalia is staggering with an estimated 90-98 per cent of girls between the ages of 4 and 11 victim to some form of the practice with nearly 80 per cent undergoing Type 3. It is broadly representative, then, of the relegation of women within Somali culture to second class citizens where a patrilineal clan system (Qabil) rooted in pastoralist culture orders society. For instance, under Somali customary law (Xeer), the life of a woman is worth half that of a man in terms of blood compensation (Diya). Similarly, a woman’s opinion is worth half that of a man’s in a traditional assembly (Shir) or mediation. These attitudes are borne out in the horrific violence women are subjected to by security forces and civilians alike, with rape and beating of women proliferating and even punitive stonings, sometimes for being raped, not uncommon. Furthermore, Somalia has an overwhelming majority Sufi Muslim population. It is, for the most part, a place where “the veil is lightly worn” and a pragmatic interpretation of Islam sits sometimes uneasily alongside customary laws and practices. Moreover, while FGM is frequently justified as a religious practice preserving the purity of women, it is, in reality, an extremely resilient customary practice which predates the conception and arrival to the Horn of Africa of Islam. While it is most prevalent within Somalia, FGM is also extant to varying degrees in the rest of the Horn of Africa, for instance, majority Christian Ethiopia. As such, despite the fractious relationship of the various populations within the region framed around religious conflict, it exposes deep cultural linkages between the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn.

 

While FGM, then, is practised mainly in majority Muslim countries and is frequently framed as a Muslim issue, it is also extant in Christian and Jewish (specifically in Ethiopia) populations as well as Central and Western Africa, parts of the Middle East and South-East Asia. While some references to male circumcision within Islamic texts are regularly and incorrectly employed as justifications for the practice, significantly, it is neither required nor prohibited by the Quran or the Bible, rather, it is tellingly not mentioned in either text.  Attempts to square this theological circle are indicative of the resilience of the practice and, consequently, demonstrative of why contemporary efforts to advocate against the practice are slow to drive change.

 

Within Somalia, advocacy groups struggle against the weight of custom, tradition and superstition. Nonetheless, some degree progress has been made especially within urban areas with some turning away from Type 3 FGM and resorting to less harmful, albeit still extremely problematic, versions of FGM. Fewer still have outright stopped the practice. Furthermore, there has been a moral realignment amongst politicians who recently have begun to advocate against the practice. However, unsurprisingly, there is some reluctance to discuss female reproductive issues in the male-dominated, overwhelmingly Muslim country’s legislatures. Despite this, the semi-autonomous Somali region of Puntland’s parliament passed an anti-FGM bill in 2011 and the practice is specifically prohibited by the 2012 Somali constitution. However, startlingly, the practice has not actually been criminalised despite the best efforts of activists especially in the wake of the death in 2018 of a ten-year-old girl in rural Somalia, named Deeqa, who bled to death after being taken to a “traditional cutter” by her mother. Of course, Somalia, which is a fragile state riddled by insecurity, intra-state conflict and concurrent complex humanitarian emergencies has limited capacity to project power even within urban areas. As a result, any movement to enshrine laws against the practice are, realistically, nominal.

 

In the Irish context, Ifrah Ahmed, a Somali-born Irish citizen, who founded the Ifrah Foundation, has become a powerful voice globally in the anti-FGM movement and has done invaluable work spreading awareness and advocating against the practice. She has even returned to Somalia to campaign against FGM, a journey not without its dangers given endemic insecurity and prevailing attitudes towards women. Ifrah Ahmed and other anti-FGM campaigners, then, face a wicked problem; the causes of FGM are multifarious and the practice is deeply ingrained in Somalia, however, progress is being made albeit slowly. Moreover, if Somalia’s institutions and security situation continue to stabilise and improve, as has been the case over the last ten years, and the country wishes to improve its image for donors and stakeholders by presenting a modernising face to the world, progress can be made.

 

If you have been touched by this article or would like to find out more, you can contact the Ifrah Foundation

 

Photo of Ifrah Ahmed by AMISOM Public Information

 

 

 

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Uyghurs Interned in Chinese Camps at Higher Risk of Covid-19

The Uyghurs in the northwestern region of China have undergone continuous and increasingly violent repression from the ruling Communist Party. Millions of them are currently imprisoned in “re-education camps” and aren’t given any protection from the novel coronavirus.

7 Things to do While we’re Stuck in Isolation

With a week and a half of quarantine already under our belts, it would be fair to say that most of you reading this have had your lives flipped over in a very short period of time. We have put together a list of things for you to occupy yourself with during this ever so strange time in our lives.

A Student’s Perspective: Sweden is Playing With Fire

I write from Sweden, a country which has chosen not to take strict measures as other European countries to fight COVID-19. I am an Irish masters student at Lund University and find the lack of movement worrying. If the virus is not contained here, we will encounter a health emergency as we have seen in Italy.

FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM is the perfect example of the inequality many women and girls still have to suffer in today’s world. It stands for Female Genital Mutilation. The procedure entails the cutting and damaging of the female genitals and is also known as female circumcision. Although there haven’t been many cases of FGM in Ireland, it is still an issue here.

A Student’s Call to Action on Climate Change

Climate change and environment issues, in general, are the most talked about topics these days, and for good reason. With all this news of despair and disaster regarding climate change it is easy to think that no matter what we do, nothing is enough. But this isn’t necessarily the case.

Xenophobic Ideas Spread Along with the Novel Coronavirus

The novel coronavirus now has 75,000 reported cases and has claimed over 2,000 lives in China. In the midst of this recent outbreak, we might find ourselves more germaphobic than usual. While paying extra attention to hygiene is normal and even healthy, there is an insidious side to this newfound germaphobia.

FemFest 2019: Women’s inequality should come with a mental health warning

FemFest 2019: Women’s inequality should come with a mental health warning

“Any one of you can become leaders, and can lead the change needed to bring about a feminist Ireland”

– Siobhan McSweeney

 

The National Women’s Council of Ireland (NWCI) hosted their fifth annual FemFest Saturday, November 30th in Dublin’s City Centre. Women between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five were invited to freely participate and unite in various workshops, panel discussions and listen to guest speakers. The event succeeded in empowering the future voices of our society, to continue pushing to implement change across all fields of adversity.

Following Director of NWCI Orla O’Connor, the day kicked off with a terrific key-note address from Derry Girls’ very own Siobhan McSweeney. Her opening address acknowledged the different types of women in attendance or simply existing, highlighting the theme of leadership, solidarity and inclusivity. 

The panels were diverse and the topics ranged from ableism in activism, to experiences of direct provision, back to the fundamental meaning of what feminism means to you. Owodunni Ola Mustapha (Ballyhaunis Inclusion Project) spoke of her current experience in direct provision with her children and the lack of independence, privacy and personal development that comes with it. Ola delivered her speech proudly and emotionally, thankful for the support she has received in Ireland but also determined to continue speaking out and unite other suffering asylum seekers. Renowned Irish author Louise O’Neill (Asking for It, Only Ever Yours) discussed her personal struggle with body image and eating disorders, amplified by social roles placed upon her in the media. Journalist Roe McDermott added to the mental health discussion, expressing distaste for the problematic efforts to have vulnerable people reach out to a society that has not been equipped with the tools to adequately reach back. Similar to workshops later in the day, the panel also explored the lack of sufficient sex education in Irish schools, a problem all too real even in 2019. Their varied and multi-cultural perspectives delved headfirst into current issues women face today, prompting discussion among attendees throughout the day.

I attended the workshops on Healthy and Unhealthy Relationships and Breaking Period Stigma.  During the first session, Facilitator Dr Hayley Mulligan explored our ideas of healthy practice in romantic relationships, how they first tend to manifest in friendships, and how to acknowledge that red flags aren’t warning signs, but the problem themselves. During the second workshop, Charlotte Amrouche, the founder of the Míosta project, explored period stigma within ourselves and others. We looked at reusable eco-friendly period products and came up with proactive solutions to menstrual challenges. Both workshops were under time constraints, which left them cut slightly short, but were invaluable all the same. Facilitators also acknowledged the importance of reaching beyond our feminist circles for education and engagement with these issues within the wider community.  

Following lunch at the Radisson Blu Hotel, drag artist Avoca Reaction performed female power anthems, evoking a positive reaction within us all. The second panel of the day included Keeva Lilith Carroll, who works as the national community development officer with the Transgender Equality Network of Ireland, and Eleanor Walsh, member of disabled women Ireland. Eleanor spoke about her experience as an autistic woman, who just by being a woman, doesn’t fit the perceived identity of a person with autism, labelled and categorised in society in more ways than one. Criticising the criticism of “armchair activism” (signing petitions online, sharing articles, donating to an NGO), she highlighted the ableist superiority complex of those who believe protest and arrests are the only adequate methods of resistance. To close she left the room with a thought-provoking statement regarding accessibility, inclusivity and equality that resonates with all hopeful change-makers: 

“Next time you’re at a meeting, or an event, look around the room to see who’s there, and see who isn’t.”

 

 Photo by Niamh Elliott-Sheridan

 

Browse more stories below or sign up to our newsletter to receive our top news straight to your inbox!

 

Let’s Talk About Coronavirus And Women

Like most things in life, coronavirus has a gendered impact. Previous experience with viruses like Ebola and Zika has shown how these crises tend to have particularly harmful effects on women and girls and reinforce gender inequality. Now we can see similar patterns emerging regarding the coronavirus – including within Ireland.

New Emojis to Highlight Diversity

Emojis play an important role in digital communication, allowing us to express our emotions and convey meaning through cute little symbols. However, our ability to communicate is limited by the pictures and symbols on offer, and so emojis can make a big difference!

Asylum Seekers host Feminist Conference for International Women’s Day

On the 7th of March 2020, the organisation ‘Abolish Direct Provision’ hosted the first Asylum Seekers Feminist Conference, with the aim of uniting and empowering women in Direct Provision. The event, held in DCU, was attended by asylum seekers from Direct Provision centres all around the country.

FGM: An Ever-Lasting Fight?

FGM is the perfect example of the inequality many women and girls still have to suffer in today’s world. It stands for Female Genital Mutilation. The procedure entails the cutting and damaging of the female genitals and is also known as female circumcision. Although there haven’t been many cases of FGM in Ireland, it is still an issue here.

“Marry-Your-Rapist” Bill to Be Passed in Turkey

In rape cases, there is a victim and there is an aggressor. However, the Turkish government is currently attempting to progress a horrific “Marry-Your Rapist” law that will allow rapists to escape any judicial penalty.

Victim of the Magdalene Laundries Seeks Justice from UN Committee Against Torture

Elizabeth Coppin, a seventy-year-old survivor of the Magdalene laundries, is taking her case to the United Nations in a landmark move. Ms Coppin says that she has been denied justice by the Irish State for over twenty years. This could potentially have resounding implications for the State’s approach to historical abuse.

The hijab, niqab, burqa and other coverings.

The hijab, niqab, burqa and other coverings.

There are different types of covering worn by Muslim women all around the world. Most recognised coverings are burqa, hijab and niqab, but they all are different from each other. They are worn to symbolise culture and religious faith.

Shayla
This is a rectangular scarf, which is loosely wrapped around the head and pinned or tugged near the neck. The extra part is placed at the shoulder.

Hijab
This is generally described as the head-scarves worn by Muslim women. Hijabs come in different colours and designs. It is generally worn to cover the head and neck, leaving the face open.

Al-Amira
The Al-Amira is a two piece veil, that wraps tightly around the head.

Khimar
A khimar is a long cape like veil, which hangs down the shoulder up to the waist. It covers the head, neck and shoulder leaving the face.

Chador
The Chador is a long cloak, that covers the whole body but leaves the face open. A smaller scarf is often worn underneath, to cover the head.

Niqab
A niqab is a veil, that covers a women from head to foot, leaving the eyes clear. It is accompanied with a head-scarf which covers the head and neck. It can also be worn with a separate eye veil.

Burqa
This is the most concealing veils of all Islamic dresses. It is a single long piece that covers the whole body, with a mesh screen on the face to see through.

 

 

Top photo by Imat Bagja Gumilar on Unsplash